E-mail
Geoelectrical and hydrogeochemical assessment of the ground
International Science and Investigation journal
Published Date: 02-02-2012 14:38:08/98 Solomon Obialo Onwuka
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Abstract

Geoelectrical and hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in order to determine the groundwater potentials of Ehandiagu in Enugu state, southeastern Nigeria. Ehandiagu is underlain by the Nkporo Shale, which is a low permeability formation. Four vertical electrical soundings (VES), employing the Schlumberger electrode configuration, were carried out in the study area, with a maximum electrode separation of 580m. The VES data were modelled with the IPI2 WIN software. The VES curves were predominantly of the QH type. The lithologic water potentials of Ehandiagu, Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria succession in the study area, as interpreted from the VES data, consists of lateritic top soil, weathered bedrock, fractured shale (the aquifer) and compact carbonaceous shale. Results show that the depth to water ranges between 6.82m and 20.7m while aquifer thicknesses range between 8.95m and 26.26m. The depth to water obtained from hand-dug wells varies between 6.20m and 15.18m. Aquifer hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity were calculated to be 2.62 x 10-3 m/day and 4.31 x 10-2 m2/day respectively. These parameters were used to classify the aquifer as moderately good to poor. Hydrogeochemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from twelve (12) hand-dug wells in the study area reveals that weathering is the major process that controls the groundwater chemistry and the water type is Sodium-Potassium-Bicarbonate. The concentration of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Pb) were found to be above the acceptable limits for potability and the SO42- concentration is very low, probably due to sulphate reduction. Both sulphate reduction and high heavy metal concentration suggest that the geochemical environment that characterizes the study area is reducing(ISIJ-A5).

Accept: January 2012

 

Keywords:

Ehandiagu, groundwater chemistry, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, vertical electrical soundi

References:

Ako, A.O. and Olorunfemi, M.O., 1989. Geoelectric survey for groundwater in the Newer Basalts of Vom Plateau State. Nig. Journal of Mining and Geology, vol. 25, nos.1 & 2, pp. 247-450.
Back, W., 1966. Hydrochemical facies and groundwater flow patterns in northern part of Atlantic coastal plain. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, 498-A. 42p.
Back, W. and Hanshaw, B.B., 1965. Chemical geohydrology. Journal of Adv. Hydrosci., vol.1, pp.49-109.
Ezeigbo, H.I., 1989. Groundwater quality problems in parts of Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of mining and geology, vol. 25, nos.1 & 2, pp.1-9.
Fetter, C.W., 1990. Applied hydrogeology. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, India, 567p.
Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J.A., 1979. Groundwater. Prentice-Hall Press, Austin, Texas, 567p.
Gibbs, R.J., 1970. Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science, 170 (3962), pp.1088-1090.
Hem, J.D., 1985. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. United States Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2254, 244p.
Hounslow, A.W., 1995. Water quality data: Analysis and Interpretation. CRS Press Inc., Lewis Publishers, 397p.
Igboekwe, M.U., Okwueze, E.E. and Okereke C.S., 2006. Delineation of potential aquifer zones from geoelectric soundings in Kwaibo river watershed, southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol.4, pp.410-421.
Ioannis, F.L., Kerantonis G.A., Nikolaos S.V. and Filippos I.L., 2009. The contribution of geophysical methods in the determination of aquifer parameters: the case of Mornos river delta, Greece. Submitted for publication in the International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
Keller, G. V., and Frischnechk, F.C., 1979. Electrical methods in geophysical prospecting. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 91 - 135.
Loke, M. H., 1999. Electrical imaging surveys for environmental and engineering studies (A practical guide to 2-D and 3-D surveys). Minden Heights, Penang- Malaysia, 57p.
Matthes, G., and Miller, J.C., 1994. Chemical and biological contaminants and their surface behaviour. In Jerosla, V. and Alexander, Z. (eds.), Guidebook on mapping groundwater vulnerability, vol. 16, pp. 11-17.
Murat, R.C., 1972. Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in southern Nigeria. In Dessauvagie, T.F.T. and Whiteman, A.J. (eds.), African geol., Univ. of Ibadan, pp.251-266.
Neil, M.D., Niel, J.M., Welker, M.C., and Evenson, K.D., 1991. Geochemical relations and distribution of selected trace elements in groundwater of the northern part of the western San Joaquin valley, California. United States Water Supply Paper, 2380.
Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality, 2007. Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS): 554. 30p.
Niwas, S., and Singhal, D.C., 1981. Estimation of aquifer transmissivity from Da–Zarrouk parameters in porous media. Journal of Hydrology, vol. 50, pp. 393-399.
Obikezie, S.O., 1993. Geochemical investigation of spring waters in parts of Anambra state, Nigeria. Water Resources Journal, vol. 3, nos.1&2, pp.49.
Offodile, E.M., 2002. Groundwater study and development in Nigeria. Mecon Geology and Engineering Services Ltd, Jos, 453p.
Ofoma, A.E., Onwuka, O.S., and Egbu O.C., 2006. Hydrogeophysical investigation in Nsukka area, southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Research in Physical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25-34.
Olayinka, A.I. and Olayiwola, M.A., 2001. Integrated use of geoelectrical imaging and hydrochemical methods in delineating limits of polluted surface and groundwater in a landfill site in Ibadan area, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp.53-68.
Onwuemesi, A.G., and Olaniyan, I.O., 1996. Hydrogeophysical investigation of parts of Anambra State, Nigeria. Water Resources Journal, vol. 7, nos.1& 2, pp.42-48.

Onwuka, O.S., Uma, O.K., and Ezeigbo, H.I., 2004. Potability of shallow groundwater in Enugu town, southeastern Nigeria. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol.3, nos. 1&2, pp.33-39.
Rao, S.N., 2006. Seasonal variation of groundwater quality in a part of Gunter District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Environmental Geology, 49, pp.413-429.
Schwiller, F., 1976. Anthropogenically reduced groundwaters. Hydrol. Sci. Bull. 21/4, pp. 629-645.
Tijani, M.N., 2003. Bacteriological, chemical and lithologic controls on the water quality in Shagamu area, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologists, 14, pp.93-100.
Todd, D.K., 1980. Groundwater hydrology. John Wiley and Sons, United States, 533p.
Wang, B., Wanty, R.B., and Vohden, J., 2004. Geochemical process and geologic framework influencing surface water and sediment chemistry in the Fortymile River watershed, eastcentral Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1695, pp.3-19.
W.H.O. 1982. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality W.H.O. Geneva.
Zodhy, A.A.R., Eaton, G.P. and Mabey, D.R., 1974. Application of surface geophysics to groundwater investigations. United States Geological Survey Paper, 123p.

Last Updated on Monday, 02 April 2012 13:18
 



ISSN: 2251-8576

Contact us

info@isijournal.info

Indexed in

Scopemed

Scholar Google

JournalSeek

IndexScholar

login